Balaena mysticetus, odobenus-rosmarus (2017 ~) 
"Both the survivors of Barentsz’ expedition as well as other explorers such as Henry Hudson brought home with them the tales of the rich whaling grounds of the arctic seas. It took only a few years until the first whalers of several European nations, most importantly England and Holland, sailed up to Spitsbergen. The English were the first ones, but focused on Walrus rather than whales during the very first seasons. Back then, Walrus were abundant at the west coast of Spitsbergen and even on Bjørnøya, where hundreds of them were slaughtered. Dutch entrepeneurs did not waste a lot of time until they sent the first expeditions in the wake of the English ones. In the first years, everybody had Basque whaling masters on board to learn how to hunt the large marine mammals. Soon, a number of shore stations was established. These were needed to process the whale and to boil the blubber (fat) down into oil. Whale oil could be sold for good money in Europe and was used as lamp oil, to make soap, as lubrication and for other purposes. Also the baleen could be sold for umbrellas, female fashion etc. By far the most important target species was the Bowhead whale (Baleana mysticetus), also called the ‘Right Whale’. It was the ‘right whale to hunt’, because it had a thick layer of blubber, swam slowly and stayed at the surface also when it was dead."
Ytre Norskøya. 79° 51. 2' N, 011° 23, 0' E
"Europe's northernmost outpost ever established until the early 19th century; and the most northerly permanent settlement established of any size until the 1950s. The station had as many as nine tryworks, some having a single furnace, others having two. To the west of these structures were buildings used by the men working ashore. Further west is found one of the largest grave sites in Spitsbergen, where 165 graves have been found. The station probably belonged to the Zeeland partners of the Noordsche Compagnie, who were forced to settle on Ytre Norskøya sometime after 1619 because the whaling vessels belonging to Amsterdam would not allow them to establish themselves at Smeerenburg. A high look-out point on the island called Zeeusche Uytkyk (Zeeland Look-out) was used by the Dutch to search for the spouts of Bowhead Whales. The name appears on Henrik Doncker's 1655 map of Mauritius Bay (modern Smeerenburgfjorden), which, however, shows the bay as it was in the 1620s (when the Danes abandoned Smeerenburg). The station was abandoned in 1670."
"The train oil cookery of the Amsterdam chamber of the Northern Company at Smeerenburg". Painting by Cornelis de Man (1639), based on a painting of a "Dansk hvalfangststation" (Danish whaling station) by ABR Speeck (1634).

Smeerenburg. 79° 41. 7' N, 010° 58, 7' E
"During the first intensive phase of the Spitsbergen whale fishery, Smeerenburg served as the centre of operations in the north. (The name Smeerenburg, in Dutch, literally means "blubber town"). 
The site of Smeerenburg was first occupied by the Dutch in 1614, when ships from the Amsterdam chamber of the Noordsche Compagnie (Northern Company) established a temporary whaling station here with tents made of canvas and crude, temporary ovens. In 1615, 1616, and 1618 the Dutch again occupied the site. In 1619, a 500-ton ship with timber and other materials was sent to Spitsbergen. The tents and temporary ovens were replaced with wooden structures and copper kettles "set in a permanent fashion on a brick foundation, with a brick fireplace beneath and a chimney for the smoke."
In its heyday (1630s), Smeerenburg was made up of 16–17 buildings, including a fort at its center, built in or before 1631 to ward off the Danish and other interlopers. The alleys between the buildings were cobbled with drainage gullies, allowing the men to walk dry-shod. There were seven double (and one single) ovens situated in front of the buildings. Amsterdam had three of the buildings and two of the double ovens, while to the west were the stations of the MiddelburgVeere, Vlissingen, Enkhuizen, Delft, and Hoorn chambers. During this time there were as many as 200 men working ashore, boiling blubber into oil, flensingwhales, and coopering casks to pour the oil into."
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